ΨΑΜΜΙΤΗΣ

. . . Ἀρίσταρχος δὲ ὁ Σάμιος ὑποθέσιών τινῶν ἐξέδωκεν γραφάς, ἐν αἷς ἐκ τῶν ὑποκειμένων συμβαίνει τὸν κόσμον πολλαπλάσιον εἶμεν τοῦ νῦν εἰρημένου.  Ὑποτίθεται γὰρ τὰ μὲν ἀπλανέα τῶν ἄστρων καὶ τὸν ἅλιον μένειν ἀκίνητον, τὰν δὲ γᾶν περιφέρεσθαι περὶ τὸν ἅλιον κατὰ κύκλου περιφέρειαν, ὅς ἐστιν ἐν μέσῳ τῷ δρόμῳ κείμενος, τὰν δὲ τῶν ἀπλανέων ἄστρων σφαῖραν περὶ τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον τῷ ἁλίῳ κειμέναν τῷ μεγέθει τηλικαύταν εἶμεν, ὥστε τὸν κύκλον, καθ᾿ ὃν τὰν γᾶν ὑποτίθεται περιφέρεσθαι, τοιαύταν ἔχειν ἀναλογίαν ποτὶ τὰν τῶν ἀπλανέων ἀποστασίαν, οἵαν ἔχει τὸ κέντρον τᾶς σφαίρας ποτὶ τὰν ἐπιφάνειαν . . . .

 

Word list:
ψαμμίτης, -ου, ὁ, from sand (ψάμμος)
ὑπόθεσις, -εως, ἡ, hypothesis
τινῶν, genitive plural of τίς, some, certain
ἐκδίδωμι, give out, bring out (third person singular aorist active indicative ἐξέδωκεν)
γραφή, ἡ, a writing, drawing
ὑπόκειμαι, lie under, be established or assumed (present participle ὑποκείμενος)
συμβαίνω, happen, follow as a logical conclusion (third person singular συμβαίνει)
κόσmος, ὁ, universe, world, order
πολλαπλάσιος, -α, -ον, many times greater
εἶμεν, Doric for the present active infinitive of εἰμί, to be
νῦν, now
εἰρέω, say, tell (present passive participle εἰρήμενος)
ὑποτίθημι, place under, propose, assume (third person singular present passive indicative ὑποτίθεται)
ἀπλανής, -ες, fixed, unmoving
ἀστήρ, -έρος, ὁ, star
ἅλιος, ὁ, Doric for ἥλιος, sun
μένω, stay, remain (infinitive μένειν)
ἀκίνητος, -ον, unmoved, motionless
τάν, Doric for definite article τήν
γᾶ, Doric for γῆ, γεῶν, ἡ, earth
περιφέρω, carry around (present passive infinitive περιφέρεσθαι)
κύκλος, ὁ, circle, ring
περιφέρεια, ἡ, circumference, periphery
μέσος, -η, -ον, middle
δρόμος, ὁ, course, race
κεῖμαι, lie, remain (present participle κείμενος)
σφαῖρα, -ας, ἡ, ball, sphere
μέγεθος, τό, greatness, magnitude (of stars)
τηλικοῦτος, -αύτη, -οῦτον, so great, so large
ὥστε, and so, so that
τοιοῦτος, -αύτη, οῦτο, stronger form of τοῖος, such as this
ἔχω, have (infinitive ἔχειν, third person singular ἔχει)
ἀναλογία, ἡ, mathematical proportion
ποτί, Doric for πρός
ἀποστασία, ἡ, late form of ἀπόστασις, -εως, ἡ, departure, distance
οἷος, such as
ἐπιφάνεια, ἡ, appearance, surface

 

ARCHIMEDES
from THE SAND RECKONER

Aristarchus of Samos has set forth writings of certain hypotheses, in which from the things that are established it follows that the universe is many times greater than that now told.  For it is proposed that the fixed [ones] of the stars and the sun remain motionless, and that the earth is borne around the sun along the circumference of a circle, [the sun] remaining in the middle of the course, and the sphere of the fixed stars lying around the same center as the sun being of so great a magnitude, that the circle, along which the earth is presumed to be borne, has such a proportion to the distance of the fixed [ones], as the center of the sphere has to the surface.